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Propionyl-L-carnitine . hydrochloride

AG-CR1-3595-M025 25 mg INQ
AG-CR1-3595-M100 100 mg INQ
AG-CR1-3595-M500 500 mg INQ
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Additional Information

Product Data
Synonyms PLC
Properties
Formula C10H19NO4 . HCl
MW 217.3 . 36.5
CAS 119793-66-7
Source/Host Synthetic.
Purity ≥98% (NMR)
Appearance White to off-white solid.
Solubility Soluble in water, methanol, ethanol, DMSO or dimethyl formamide.
InChi Key KTFMPDDJYRFWQE-DDWIOCJRSA-N
Product Type Chemical
Shipping and Handling
Shipping AMBIENT
Short Term Storage +4°C
Long Term Storage -20°C
Handling Advice Hygroscopic.
Use/Stability Stable for at least 2 years after receipt when stored at -20°C.
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Product Description

  • Naturally occurring carnitine derivative formed by carnitine acetyltransferase during β-oxidation of uneven chain fatty acids, with high affinity for muscular carnitine transferase. Increases cellular carnitine content, allowing free fatty acid transport into the mitochondria [1, 5].
  • Stimulates energy production in ischaemic muscles by increasing citric acid cycle flux and stimulating pyruvate dehydrogenase activity [1, 2].
  • Important for mitochondrial metabolism and energy regulation. Regulates the metabolism of both carbohydrates and lipids, leading to an increase of ATP generation [9, 11].
  • Selectively inhibits in vitro and ex vivo platelet-activating factor (PAF) synthesis from human neutrophils [3].
  • Antioxidant. Shows free radical scavenging activity [4].
  • Decreases the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS/NOS II) and NADPH-oxidase 4-mediated reactive oxygen species production in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells [7].
  • Shows beneficial cardiovascular effects. Improves body weight, food intake, adiposity and insulin resistance in Type 2 diabetes [5, 6, 8-10].
  • Stimulates endothelial nitric oxide (eNOS/NOS III) and increased NO production, via AMPK/Src-mediated signaling that leads to activation of PI3 kinase and Akt [6, 12].

Product References

  1. Changes in skeletal muscle histology and metabolism in patients undergoing exercise deconditioning: effect of propionyl-L-carnitine: G. Brevetti, et al.; Muscle Nerve 20, 1115 (1997)
  2. Propionyl-L-carnitine: L.R. Wiseman & R.N. Brogden; Drugs Aging 12, 243 (1998) (Review)
  3. Inhibition of platelet-activating factor synthesis in human neutrophils and platelets by propionyl-L-carnitine: M. Triggiani, et al.; Biochem. Pharmacol. 58, 1341 (1999)
  4. L-propionyl-carnitine as superoxide scavenger, antioxidant, and DNA cleavage protector: A. Vanella, et al.; Cell Biol. Toxicol. 16, 99 (2000)
  5. Therapeutic effects of L-carnitine and propionyl-L-carnitine on cardiovascular diseases: a review: R. Ferrari, et al.; Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1033, 79 (2004) (Review)
  6. Oral supplementation of propionyl-l-carnitine reduces body weight and hyperinsulinaemia in obese Zucker rats: C. Mingorance, et al.; Br. J. Nutr. 102, 1145 (2009)
  7. Propionyl-L-carnitine improves postischemic blood flow recovery and arteriogenetic revascularization and reduces endothelial NADPH-oxidase 4-mediated superoxide production: M.A. Stasi, et al.; Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 30, 426 (2010)
  8. Critical update for the clinical use of L-carnitine analogs in cardiometabolic disorders: C. Mingorance, et al.; Vasc. Health Risk Manag. 7, 169 (2011)
  9. Pharmacological effects and clinical applications of propionyl-L-carnitine: C. Mingorance, et al.; Nutr. Rev. 69, 279 (2011) (Review)
  10. Propionyl-L-carnitine corrects metabolic and cardiovascular alterations in diet-induced obese mice and improves liver respiratory chain activity: C. Mingorance, et al.; PLoS One 7, e34268 (2012)
  11. Translating the basic knowledge of mitochondrial functions to metabolic therapy: role of L-carnitine: S.M. Marcovina, et al.; Transl. Res. 161, 73 (2013)
  12. Propionyl-L-carnitine induces eNOS activation and nitric oxide synthesis in endothelial cells via PI3 and Akt kinases: W.H. Ning & K. Zhao; Vascul. Pharmacol. 59, 76 (2013)
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